SOFTWARE
FOR FEEDING AND
INGATING TECHNIQUES FOR STEELCASTINGS
DESCRIPTION OF OUR POURING
 AND FEEDING TECHNIQUE, COMPUTERPROGRAM
1. INTRODUCTION
We have developed a computerprogram for feeding
and ingating calculation of steel castings.
Our feeding and ingating technology is based
on the publication of R. Wlodawer. Further the
shape factor of the different simple sections
as J. Jamar are considered, which have been
proved in practise through our customers. The
computer calculates the solidification modulus
and not only the geometrical modulus ( M=V /
SA ). 



2. CONDITIONS FOR USE OF THE SOFTWARE, QUALIFICATION
OF COMPUTER OPERATOR
Condition for using our computer program for riser,
feeding and ingate calculation is to know how to
read a casting drawing ant the basic of solidification
of steel.
3. REQUIRED FOUNDRY DATA
After handover our software to the foundry it must
be completed by:
3.1. Steel qualities
Based on the input the computer calculates the values
of the steel analysis C, Si, Mn, P, S, Cr, Ni, Mo,
Al, Ti
The liquidus temperature (°C) and the percentage
of the solidificationshrinkage. On input of the
internal steel definition these values will be stored.
3.2. Ladle data
 Quantity of ladles
 Diameter
 Height
 Quantity of nozzles per ladle
 Diameter of nozzles
3.3. Refractory running system ( if desired
)
Diameter and length of
 Tube
 Lpieces
 Tpieces
 X  pieces
3.4. ISOTHERM "Z"Material for feeder linings
ISOCHAIN MATERIAL
Also all other feeder sleeves or materials with
different insulation factors.
4. SYSTEM OF THE SOFTWARE PROGRAM
4.1. Input of general data
 Black casting weight and machining additions
 Date
 Time
 Name of user
4.2. Modulus calculation
4.2.1. Section of numbers (SN)
As with manual modulus calculation the
casting must be divided in easy geometrical parts
and marked with SNnumbers. Our computer is programmed
with the following simple geometrical shapes.
 Cube
 Bar ( endless )
 Cylinder
 Ring
 Plate
 Tube ( endless )
4.2.2. Correction of solidification
4.2.2.1. Junctions
The junction of two or more crossing
sections will reduce or enlarge the modulus.
Through input of the simple section modulus
and the radius between the particular simple
sections, the solidification modulus through
junctions will automatically be calculated and
considered in the further calculations.
4.2.2.2. Modulus enlargement through
preheating of cores
On modulus calculation e.g. of rings
or tubes and eventual sandpreheating of the
core is considered in our computer program.
4.2.2.3. Chill Casting
The modulus reduction in certain zones
through direct chilling or below sand is also
considered by the computer.
4.2.2.4 Insulating Pads
To prevent expensive cutting of leading
peds, the modulus of certain zones can be enlarged
through direct insulation.
The modulus largement is calculated by the computer.
4.3. Solidification control
Depending of quality specification (ASTMstandard)
and filling direction the length of the feeding
and endzone will be determined. Extending the feeding
and end zone length the computer indicates that
the need and size of pads.
For a sound casting operator you can also select
between:
 Enlargement of number of risers
 Feeding shoulders
 Solidification control through chills of insulating
pads
4.4. Riser calculation
The dimension of the risers consider the
solidification modulus and the feeding volume.
The riser dimensions can be calculated as sand riser
or insulated riser. The preprogrammed dimensions
of insulating material allow the calculation of
quantity and costs of insulating (exo.) materials.
4.5. Pouring system
Through consideration of the quantity of
moulds to be casted simultaneously, the correct
ladle, the nozzle diameter etc. will be selected
from the dates of the ladles as per 3.2. Individual
corrections are possible.
Depending of liquid weight, quality class and maximum
solidification modulus
 the desired pouring time
 the effective pouring time
 the diameter of the running system
 the diameter of the ingates
 the minimum downgate  height and fountain effect
 if necessary the critical rising speed in the
mould
are calculated. On simultaneous pouring of several
moulds with on ladle the particular filling time
from the first to the last mould will be indicated.
